Employees May Not Be Faking It as Much As You Think

 

Employers Think Non-Genuine Days Higher Than Reality
 
Taking a fake "sickie" is well-known as a great Australian tradition but research shows the problem in 2012 may be more of an office myth.  A study shows that bosses think non-genuine sick days account for up to 25 percent of absenteeism, when they actually account for less than 15 percent.
 
The research from Direct Health Solutions – an absence management firm – found sick days cost the economy about $28 billion a year and CEO Paul Dundon said bosses found this easy to blame on workers.
 
 “They’re focused too much on the odd case of a ‘sickie’ and not on the genuine factors absence,” Dundon said.  The 2012 Absence Management Survey found that businesses believed the most common reason workers took days off was for unexpected illness.  But the second most common reason cited by business was that employees viewed their paid sick days as an entitlement.
 
 
Workplaces Have Absenteeism Culture
 
DHS said some workplaces have an “absenteeism culture” where a certain level of absence is tolerated – typically the paid entitlement level.  The study also found absenteeism was higher in large organizations with more than 1000 employees.
 
“It becomes more complex to manage the bigger a business becomes, and it’s easier to fly under the radar and when that happens it kind of develops a culture of absenteeism,” Dundon said.
Absence levels were also 21 percent higher in unionized environments, and 20 percent higher in the public sector.
 
 
Proper Systems Not In Place to Manage
 
“[In the public sector] they’ve got more entitlements, and they don’t have proper systems in place to manage it,” Dundon noted. “[Unions] make it more challenging to manage – they see it as a right or entitlement that shouldn’t be managed or addressed. Managers often avoid the issue because it’s too hard or they’re too fearful.”
 
 
Telecommunications Highest, IT Workers Lowest
 
The telecommunications and utilities industry had the highest number of days lost at 13.1, followed by travel, tourism and hospitality at 13 and outsources service providers at 11.1.
 
IT workers had the lowest number of sick days at 4.6, followed by retail workers at 6.5 and manufacturing and production and 6.5.  Dundon added industries that required workers to deal directly with customers had higher numbers of sick days.
 
“There’s a lot to do with workplace flexibility – people in IT can bring their work home,” he said.
According to Dundon, the retail figure was disproportionately low because the industry had a high level of casual labor and did not track sick leave well.  And manufacturing and production had a big drop in absence levels from 2011, down from 8.5 days to 6.5.
 
“There is a lot of risk and insecurity in that industry at the moment,” Dundon said. The study also found that half of employers think it is easy for workers to obtain a medical certificate even when they are not sick.
 
As Dundon noted, there are more effective ways to manage sick days, including conducting return to work interviews after every absence and centralizing a company’s record of days off.
 
 
Number of sick days per year by industry sector:
 
Telecommunications & Utilities – 13.1 days
 
Travel, Tourism, Hospitality – 13.0 days
 
Outsourced Service Provider – 11.1 days
 
Public Services/Government – 10.3 days
 
Banking, Finance & Insurance – 9.1 days
 
Construction – 8.5 days
 
Transport & Logistics – 8.1 days
 
Healthcare – 8.0 days
 
Non Profit – 7.6 days
 
Media – 7.0 days
 
Manufacturing & Production – 6.5 days
 
Retail – 6.5 days
 
Information Technology – 4.6 days
 

Author Michael B. Stack, CPA, Director of Operations, Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. is an expert in employer communication systems and part of the Amaxx team helping companies reduce their workers compensation costs by 20% to 50%. He is a writer, speaker, and website publisher.  www.reduceyourworkerscomp.com Contact mstack@reduceyourworkerscomp.com

 

 


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Health Promotion Efforts Keep Employees On The Job

Workers participating in a "comprehensive" workplace health promotion program had a one-fifth reduction in absenteeism during the first year, according to a study in the April Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, official publication of the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM).



Led by Maurice Niessen of the NDDO Institute for Prevention and Early Diagnostics, Amsterdam, the researchers evaluated a web-based worksite health promotion project at a large Dutch financial services company. The program used a "computerized knowledge-based reasoning system," which integrated the best available risk prediction equations with research-proven prevention and early diagnostic steps. [WCx]


The program emphasized low-pressure, low-intensity interventions — geared not only to employees' individual health risks, but also to their readiness to make lifestyle changes. Another key feature was assessment of mental health issues leading to burnout, a major cause of work disability in the Netherlands. 


Of about 11,250 employees invited, 3,900 enrolled in the program. After one year, the estimated absenteeism rate was approximately four percent for employees who participated in the program versus five percent for nonparticipants. Thus employees participating in the program had a 20 percent reduction in absenteeism in the first year. 


A growing number of companies are interested in workplace health promotion programs, with the goal of reducing health risk factors that lead to illness and lost job productivity. Studies of previous programs have not consistently shown reduced rates of absenteeism.


The comprehensive worksite health promotion program evaluated in the new study led to a significant drop in absenteeism rates. In fact, the improvement was achieved faster than expected; one year is not really long enough for lifestyle changes to have a meaningful impact on the risk of chronic diseases. [WCx]


Niessen and colleagues speculate that the program may have improved employees' psychological well-being or stress levels perhaps as a result of making healthy lifestyle changes or getting help with mental health problems.


Author Robert Elliott, executive vice president, Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. has worked successfully for 20 years with many industries to reduce Workers Compensation costs, including airlines, healthcare, printing/publishing, pharmaceuticals, retail, hospitality and manufacturing. He is an editor and contributor to Workers Compensation Management Program: Reduce Costs 20% to 50%. Contact: Info@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com.

 


 

 Editor Michael B. Stack, CPA, Director of Operations, Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. is an expert in employer communication systems and part of the Amaxx team helping companies reduce their workers compensation costs by 20% to 50%. He is a writer, speaker, and website publisher. Contact Mstack@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com. 
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Do not use this information without independent verification. All state laws vary. You should consult with your insurance broker or agent about workers comp issues.

 

©2012 Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved under International Copyright Law. If you would like permission to reprint this material, contact us at: Info@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com.

Nursing Survey: Transformational Leadership, Workplace Injury, Absenteeism

 

pic4A national nursing assistant survey yielded some interesting findings as seen on the Health Care Management Review website. Brought to our attention by Jennifer Christian, M.D., the study tells that nursing assistants (NAs) are an important human resource in health care. They provide direct care to more than 1.5 million nursing home patients in about 16,100 nursing home settings according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A higher turnover rate in the field (about 66 percent in 2007) among NAs may be linked to reduced quality of patient care in nursing homes, according to the study.

 

 

Naturally, workplace injury is a serious concern among NAs, the study states. Transformational leadership (TL) has long been popular among management scholars and health services researchers, but no research studies have empirically tested the association of TL with workplace injuries and absenteeism among nursing assistants (NAs).(WCxKit)

 

 

The cross-sectional study explores whether TL is associated with workplace injuries and absenteeism among NAs. They analyzed the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey data. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to test the role of TL in the context of workplace performances and results revealed the TL model was positively linked to workplace injury in the level of NAs. Injury-related absenteeism was also associated with the TL style, indicating that TL behaviors may help address workplace absence among NAs.

 

 

Findings suggest introducing TL practices may benefit NAs in improving workplace performances.

 

 

Over the past 10-year period (1995-2004), about 800,000 nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides were injured in the workplace, the report says. Over the same period, 154 workers in the occupation were killed on the job. Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants experience the third highest number of injuries and illness, exceeded only by truck drivers and laborers and material movers. (WCxKit)

 

 

In a prospective study investigating workplace injuries among NAs in Washington State, revealed that about 46 percent of the sampled respondents reported back and shoulder injuries. The study was based on a national survey and reports that more than half of certified NAs had at least one work-related injury in the past year. Prior studies have suggested that occupational injury may be blamed for the attrition rate of NAs.


Author Rebecca Shafer
, JD, President of Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. is a national expert in the field of workers compensation. She is a writer, speaker, and website publisher. Her expertise is working with employers to reduce workers compensation costs, and her clients include airlines, healthcare, printing, publishing, pharmaceuticals, retail, hospitality, and manufacturing. See www.LowerWC.com for more information. Contact: RShafer@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com.

 

 

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©2011 Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved under International Copyright Law. If you would like permission to reprint this material, contact Info@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com.

 

Leave of Absence Tool Clarifies State and Federal Family Leave Laws for Employers

 
Eight out of 10 employers cite leave law administration as their most difficult human resource activity given the myriad of overlapping leave laws and potential million-dollar claim disputes. A new searchable online reference tool, providing accurate and complete information on federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), state Family Medical Leave (FML), and other leave laws was recently launched by Reed Group, MDGuidelines.
 
 
Leave of Absence Advisor simplifies the tangled web of state and federal leave laws. Users can search by keyword, browse by category or specify state and leave reason, and also obtain information on corresponding best practices by Reed Group’s return-to work and leave law experts. The result is easier leaves administration, reduced risk of costly compliance errors, and increased confidence that employees are receiving the appropriate leaves when personal difficulties arise.
 
 
“No human being can possibly understand, interpret, and apply overlapping regulations in multiple jurisdictions while in the daily process of approving and administering leaves,” says Jon Seymour, MD, Reed Group President, Guidelines. “Leave of Absence Advisor is a critically needed tool for navigating that complexity. (WCxKit)
 
 
Chief Compliance Officer Martha J. Cardi says Leave of Absence Advisor users can rest assured its content is the most up-to-date information available.
 
 
“Our content is in full compliance with the multitude of state and federal leave laws,” Cardi, a recognized expert in employment and leave law, said. “We track leave of absence legislation throughout the country and implement changes into all of our products and services on an on-going basis. Users will benefit immediately from this competency when they use Leave of Absence Advisor.”
 
 
Everyone involved in return-to-work matters can benefit from using Leave of Absence Advisor, including employers, insurers, third party administrators, attorneys, government entities, and employees. (WCxKit)
 
 
For more information and a free demonstration of MDGuidelines Leave of Absence Advisor, phone Reed Group at 866-889-4449 or email mdguidelines@reedgroup.com.
 
 
Reed Group®, headquartered in Colorado, is the world’s most trusted source of return-to-work information, helping companies improve employee absence outcomes. Contact 866.889.4449 or email jnelson@reedgroup.com; at www.reedgroup.com.
 
MDGuidelines is the disability industry’s leading return-to-work reference toolset. Available as a web-based resource or integrated with the user’s IT system, MDGuidelines offers real-world and idealized return-to-work durations with advanced predictive modeling. Visit www.mdguidelines.com.


 
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©2011 Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved under International Copyright Law. If you would like permission to reprint this material, contact Info@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com.

Workplace Absence Costing British Economy Big Bucks

Great Britain's economy lost 190 million working days to absence in 2010, with each employee taking an average of 6.5 days off sick, according to the latest CBI/Pfizer Absence and Workplace Health Survey.
 
 
Despite the introduction of the new “fit note” in 2010, the rate of absence last year was marginally higher than in 2009, when employees averaged 6.4 sick days, the lowest rate since the survey began in 1987. The 190 million days cost employers £17bn, including over £2.7bn from 30.4 million days of non-genuine sickness absence – so-called “sickies”. This does not include the other indirect costs of absence, like lower customer service and lost productivity. (WCxKit)
 
 
This year’s survey is the first since the launch of the fit note – the new medical certificate focused on what people can do rather than what they can’t, designed to aid returns to work and reduce absence costs. Despite strong support for the initiative, employers have been disappointed by their experience so far: 66% of firms said that it had not yet helped their rehabilitation policy, and 71% were not confident that GPs were using the fit note differently from the old sick note.
 
 
Katja Hall, CBI Chief Policy Director, noted, “There’s been no let up in the cost of absence to the UK economy, which runs into billions of pounds a year. Although many organizations have been successful in bringing down levels of absence, the gap between the best and worst has widened.
 
 
The substantial costs of absence to the economy put a premium on managing longer-term absence well. The fit note is a great initiative, which could play an important role in helping people back to work and stopping them slide into long-term absence. But employers are far from convinced that the scheme is working properly and don’t think GPs are getting the necessary training.
 
 
The launch of the electronic fit note should be an ideal opportunity for the Department of Work and Pensions to extend the reach of its training program and address GPs’ engagement. There can be no room for complacency in addressing the so-called sick note culture.”
 
 
On the cost of “sickies”, Hall added, “Sadly, more days were lost to non-genuine absence than in 2009 and the cost of these bogus sick days is over £2.7bn a year. Sickies are unfair on colleagues and damage employers' competitiveness at a critical point in the recovery.”
 
 
Employees in the public sector took more sick days than those in the private sector, an average of 8.1 days a year compared with 5.9 days. This represents an improvement on last year’s average of 8.3 days and a marked improvement since 2007’s average of 9 days. Far more absence in the public sector is long-term than in the private sector, and reducing this will be key to reaching private sector levels. (WCxKit)
 
 
The CBI estimates that if the public sector could reach private sector absence levels, it would save the taxpayer around £5bn by 2015-16. The cost of absence is much higher in the public sector – a median of £1040 compared with £710 in the private sector, or a difference of 46%.
 
 
Author Robert Elliott, executive vice president, Amaxx Risks Solutions, Inc. has worked successfully for 20 years with many industries to reduce Workers Compensation costs, including airlines, healthcare, printing/publishing, pharmaceuticals, retail, hospitality and manufacturing. See www.LowerWC.com for more information. Contact:Info@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com or 860-553-6604.

 
Do not use this information without independent verification. All state laws vary. You should consult with your insurance broker or agent about workers comp issues.
 
©2011 Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved under International Copyright Law. If you would like permission to reprint this material, contact Info@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com.

The Cost of Failing to Manage Employee Absences

The True Costs of Lost Productivity
No one has spare employees. The estimated annual price tag of unscheduled absences for large employers is $660 per domestic employee.1 Whenever an employee is disabled and off work, you are paying both the benefit costs of workers compensation or disability and the replacement costs of overtime or temporary workers. A solid absence management program:
1.     Speeds the return to work for injured employees.
2.     Cuts occupational and non-occupational disability costs.
3.     Creates a return to work culture within your company.

Putting The Management Back Into Absence Management
An absence management program uses a return to work program to provide assessment through implementation, evaluation and the provision of resources moving forward, giving employers an all-encompassing approach.
All elements of an employer’s current return to work efforts are examined, both occupational and non-occupational, to identify areas of strength and opportunity. ADA and ADAAA compliance issues are addressed and policies and procedures are regulation compliant.
A superior absence management plan focuses on more than injuries and illness. Only 34 percent of absences are due to illness or injury. The majority of unscheduled absences come from other concerns, such as family issues (22 percent), personal needs (18 percent), entitlement mentality and stress.2  
Whether it’s your employee’s illness or that of a family member, medically trained professionals should include:
1.     Registered nurses
2.     Board-certified physicians
3.     Vocational rehabilitation consultants
4.     Behavioral health specialists
5.     Master-level social workers

Building a Return to Work Culture
All of your front line managers, supervisors and other key players experience the same mindset and corporate culture, addressing:
1.     The importance and financial value of returning disabled employees to work.
2.     The skills and practices involved in working with employees as they re-enter the workplace.
3.     Existing policies or procedures which inhibit return to work.
4.     Manager and employee incentives that are counterproductive.
5.     Training and eLearning tools.
6.     Objective measurements to gauge program effectiveness.

Companies learn
how to reduce disability time to a functional minimum. Everyone wins. Employers see lower total costs, work teams get key players back sooner and the employee gets back to a full wage or salary.

Demonstrated Success …

A West Coast hospital network looked to Milt Wright & Associates, to identify costly deficiencies and effective solutions. One year after implementation, the custom assessment, case management training for managers and supervisors, and ongoing technical assistance yielded a cost reduction from $3.7 million to $900,000.
Extensive experience confirms improving the internal handling of return to work reduces overall claim durations. Your claim program will not change, but your ability to improve each return to work challenge will, thus you reduce your total loss costs.
1Employer Resource Institute Webinar, April 9, 2010.
217th Annual CCH Unscheduled Absence Survey. (www.cch.com/press/news/2007/20071010h.asp)
 
Contributor: Broadspire provides workers compensation third-party administrative services. This service is available bundled and unbundled to Broadspire clients and to companies that are not  currently clients. For information contact 1-866-625-1662 or Broadspire_Info@choosebroadspire.com; www.choosebroadspire.
 
Do not use this information without independent verification. All state laws vary. You should consult with your insurance broker or agent about workers comp issues.
 
©2010 Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved under International Copyright Law. If you would like permission to reprint this material, contact Info@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com.

Employee Absences Decrease as Economy Sinks

The economic downturn and rising jobless rate appear to have put a brake on employee absences, according to a recent survey.
 
Rates of employee absences through 2009 are at the lowest recorded since 1985, the year legal and business publisher Bureau of National Affairs (BNA) began its quarterly survey of employers.
 
Dropping below the 2008 low of 0.9 percent of scheduled worker days per month, the median absence rate in 2009 averaged 0.7 percent. Absence rates have declined consistently since 2005, when they averaged 1.5 percent of scheduled worker days.
 
Year-over- year absence rates declined in nonbusiness and manufacturing organizations, but were stable in nonmanufacturing concerns. Absences tended to be lower in smaller than in larger organizations.
 
Regionally, median monthly absence rates from 2008 to 2009 fell two-tenths of a point in the Northeast (from 0.9 percent to 0.7 percent) and three-tenths of a point in the North Central states (from 1.1 percent to 0.8 percent). There was no change in the South (0.7 percent), while in the West, median monthly absence rates increased only marginally, from 1.1 percent to 1.2 percent.
 
Similarly, employee turnover (voluntary median monthly separation rates excluding layoffs, reductions-in-force, and departures of temporary staff), in tandem with slowing economic growth and rising rates of unemployment, has plunged from 1.0 percent of employers’ workforces per month in 2008 to 0. percent in 2009. (workersxzcompxzkit)
 
The weakening economy and job market appears to discourage employees from seeking other job opportunities, as turnover rates shrank for employers in every category of industry and workforce size, and in every region of the country.

Author Robert Elliott, executive vice president, Amaxx Risks Solutions, Inc. has worked successfully for 20 years with many industries to reduce Workers' Compensation costs, including airlines, health care, manufacturing, printing/publishing, pharmaceuticals, retail, hospitality and manufacturing. He can be contacted at: Robert_Elliott@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com.

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Do not use this information without independent verification. All state laws vary. You should consult with your insurance broker or agent about workers' comp issues.
 
©2010 Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved under International Copyright Law. If you would like permission to reprint this material, contact Info@ ReduceYourWorkersComp.com.

Employees Present (But Impaired) Cost 6.5 Times More Than Absenteeism

2009 Drug Free Work Week 10/19-10/25, HI-LITES Myth:  Absenteeism is the leading substance addiction expense for employers. Reality:  Untrue!  It is estimated that "presenteeism" (present at work but impaired) may be 6.5X more costly than absenteeism.   In fact, many substance addicted workers are never intoxicated on the job, but are in an acute phase of detoxification, given the short acting pharmacology of alcohol and most illicit drugs.   In simplest terms, this is brain-impaired presenteeism. Employer Tip:  Be vigilant for substance related presenteeism (i.e. alcoholism: tremors, sweating, irritability, mistakes, poor judgment, injuries etc.). Best practice mandates immediate feedback re: symptoms/behaviors, and facilitated discussions with managers and staff to explore presenteeism solutions. Myth:  Recent data published in the Wall Street Journal showing a declining rate of positive urine drug tests means that workplace substance abuse is decreasing. Reality:  No scientific conclusions* can be drawn from this data about workplace substance abuse.  What definitely is true is that urine drug test adulteration and substitution is big business.  On the day this article was written, a web-search of "How to beat a urine drug test" returned 976,000 results!  These results showed how to beat employment screening, return to duty and random drug testing, even naming specific companies and their urine drug testing protocols to ensure best-practice adulteration method!  SAMHSA's substance abuse survey data shows worker substance addiction to be over 10% for decades, including the latest results from 2007 (8.8% illicit drugs and 8.9% for alcohol).  The Supreme Court shares our concern, recently ruling that regardless of company policy/preference, all workers who test positive  must be observed  during return to duty drug testing. (workersxzcompxzkit) *[The authors have contacted the Wall Street Journal Editor to clarify any misperceptions]. Employer Tip:  Consult a clinical expert about drug test contamination and the latest drug testing technologies, some of which help minimize adulteration (i.e. lab-based oral fluids testing with "non-mandated" companies).  Be cautious of any research study interpretations which do not match up with SAMHSA's data. Authors: Bill White MSN and Katharine White MSN About the authors: K & B White are leadership entrepreneurs who co-founded DFW-Renaissance Inc. (www.dfw-r.com) and co-developed managerial science innovation DFW-R Lean CultureTM (to create/sustain highly engaged drug free workforces). Both are former hospital C-Suite executives with extensive drug treatment, leadership and behavioral health experience. Look for their upcoming headline article in DATIA Focus on DFW Culture Change and Employee Morale. They can be reached by email at billtwhite@cox.net and phone at 401-615-8775.

To review laws in your state on workplace drug policies and rules for testing employees see http://reduceyourworkerscomp.com//drug-testing-state-laws.php

Follow Us On Twitter: www.twitter.com/WorkersCompKit Do not use this information without independent verification. All state laws vary. You should consult with your insurance broker or agent about workman's comp issues. ©2009 Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved under International Copyright Law. If you would like permission to reprint this material, contact Info@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com

Reward Good Behavior to Control Workers’ Compensation and Absenteeism Costs

Reducing Chronic Absence

When reducing chronic absenteeism, companies engage in strategies, such as opting for a cross between the “I’m Okay, You’re Okay” (IOYO) concept2 and Operant Conditioning3. Obviously, you’ll never explain the concepts to managers and supervisors in these terms, however, our director of training with a degree in teaching explains it like this, so I’m passing it along…

IOYO incentive programs are based on the performance of the individual, i.e., employees caught in the act of being good are rewarded. Thus, errant employees conform to corporate standards, and their rate of absenteeism subsequently decline. The individual has only himself or herself to measure performance against the corporate standard, which may work well for highly motivated individuals, but not so well for those engaging in chronic absenteeism.

In organizations where 20 percent of employees routinely take sick days or experience lengthy illness and constitute 80 percent of absence costs, employers must consider a departure from the traditional reward paradigms. Companies must act quickly before absenteeism becomes a drain on fiscal health, the goal being to bring all employees’ value systems into line company standards.

As the employer works with the employee benefits manager to develop a strategy to control absenteeism, a solid plan design is constructed contain four elements of effective communication tools, program administration and funding.

Four Elements are:
1. Value systems and absence management
2. Absence management facilitators (AMFs)
3. Peer pressure through team building
4. Supervisor involvement

1. Value Systems and Absence Management
Corporate culture impacts the absence practices of employees. By using team-building employers take the novel approach of altering the value systems of their employees4.

Value systems consist of attitudes, perceptions, and widely held beliefs individuals hold about themselves, their relationships with their peer groups, and their standing in the community or the organization where they work. Every one has an attitude toward work, a perception of himself or herself as a worker, a belief in his or her capability to perform work at a given level.

Inherent in the work ethic is an attitude toward absenteeism with employees existing on a continuum concerning work ethics, attitudes toward work and absenteeism. There are three types of employees. Those who are never absent, experience average absences or are chronically absent. Altering employee value systems means employers work to bring employees with high-frequency, short-duration absences into line with the corporate value system. Continued … in Step Two.

Endnotes:
2. Thomas Harris, I’m Okay, You’re Okay. A guide to Transactional Analysis, Harper & Row Publishers, New York (1969), Harris builds on earlier theory of transactional analysis, an interactive theory originated by Eric Berne in his book, Games People Play, Grove Press, New York, (1964).
3. B.F. Skinner, a Harvard behavioral psychologist, posited the theory of operant conditioning. Skinner argued behavior is determined by external forces. The consequences of a given behavior will determine whether the frequency of the behavior will increase or decrease.
4. Joseph J Martocchio, “The Effects of Absence Culture on Individual Absence,” Human Relations, 47:3, 243 (1994).

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Do not use this information without independent verification. All state laws are different. Consult with your corporate legal counsel before implementing any cost containment programs.

©2008 Amaxx Risk Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved under International Copyright Law. If you would like permission to reprint this material, contact Info@ReduceYourWorkersComp.com

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